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What is an AC Joint Separation?




A shoulder separation is a fairly common injury, especially in certain sports. Most shoulder separations are actually injuries to the acromioclavicular (AC) joint.


What is the AC Joint?


The AC joint is the connection between the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone). Shoulder dislocations and AC joint separations are often mistaken for each other. But they are very different injuries.


This guide will help you understand what the AC joint is, what happens when the AC joint is separated, and how an AC joint separation is treated.


Anatomy of the AC Joint


The shoulder is made up of three bones: the scapula (shoulder blade), the humerus (upper arm bone), and the clavicle (collarbone). The part of the scapula that makes up the top of the shoulder is called the acromion. The AC joint is where the acromion and the clavicle meet. Ligaments hold these two bones together.


Ligaments are soft tissue structures that connect bone to bone. The AC ligaments surround and support the AC joint. Together, they form the joint capsule. The joint capsule is a watertight sac that encloses the joint and the fluids that bathe the joint. Two other ligaments, the coracoclavicular ligaments, hold the clavicle down by attaching it to a bony knob on the scapula called the coracoid process.


AC Joint Separation Severity


AC joint separations are graded from mild to severe, depending on which ligaments are sprained or torn. The mildest type of injury is a simple sprain of the AC ligaments. Doctors call this a grade one injury.


A grade two AC separation involves a tear of the AC ligaments and a sprain of the coracoclavicular ligaments.